What is bokashi composting

What is bokashi composting?

Traditional composting uses aerobic bacteria to break down food scraps and garden waste. A Bokashi composting system uses anaerobic bacteria (lactic acid bacteria) and yeasts to break them down. This works well for both home and commercial kitchens. You need to separate wet waste (food waste) from dry waste a source. If you live in a dry climate this is also helpful because a traditional compost pile dries out easily. Bokashi composting is a great way to conserve water.

Benefits of bokashi composting

A bokashi system quickly and easily converts all food waste into highly productive compost. The key to the bokashi process is fermentation. Through fermentation, bokashi composting generates the specialized microbes, yeast, and fungi th

bokashi composting vegetablesat are the primary building blocks of a healthy and productive soil structure.
With bokashi, many of the challenges associated with ‘traditional’ composting are eliminated. While traditional back-yard composting typically works on select food scraps only, bokashi composting works on ALL food scraps: cooked foods, dairy, meat, grains, pasta, fruits and veggies. This is what makes bokashi so special. It is revolutionary in the composting environment.

In addition, it is easy, produces no foul odour, will not attract pests. The compost produced from your food waste is richer in effective beneficial micro-organisms than any other form of compost and your garden will love it.

It’s so simple! Transform ALL of your food scraps to compost in just 4-6 weeks in 3 easy steps.
Step 1: Collect food waste
Step 2: Treat with bokashi
Step 3: Convert into compost

Bokashi composting wheatgrassTop 10 reasons why you should use a bokashi composting system:

1. It’s fast
The bokashi composting process will transform your food scraps to nutrient rich compost in just 4-6 weeks. That means that just over a month after you have thrown away your vegetable peelings or your half eaten pasta, you will be able to use it as compost in your garden. Traditional composting takes 7  to 10 months.

2. It’s easy
It is easy from start to finish. To set up, you just need a bokashi bucket with a straining tray and tap and some bokashi. Simply add your food waste to your bucket, sprinkle with Bokashi Bran® and seal the lid. It is also easy to finish, Once your bin is full do nothing for two weeks and then cocoon it in your compost pile. It is best to turn a compost pile every 3 to 4 weeks.

3. You can compost all of your food waste
All of your food waste can be recycled with the bokashi system. Vegetable peelings, fruit skins and peelings, leftover salads and everything that you would throw in a ‘traditional composter’ are all great in your bokashi bin. You can also add cooked food, meat, dairy, baked goods – bread, egg shells, bones… all food waste.

4. No putrid smells
Bokashi composting isn’t completely odourless but the smell shouldn’t be unpleasant. It smells a bit like pickles or the yeasty smell from brewing beer. The bin is tightly sealed and can be kept inside your kitchen where it is easily accessible to your food waste without causing any bad smells.

5. No pest problems
Many people may have given up on home composting after years of  battling with pests in the compost heap. Rats, flies, mice can cause havoc with a compost pile and are not welcome visitors to most gardens. Traditional compost piles rely on your food scraps rotting over time which can take around a year to convert into usable compost. This gives local wildlife plenty of time to find your compost pile and identify it as a food source. Adding meat, cooked food, egg shells, dairy and bread to your traditional compost pile is a disaster.
With this system of composting, the food waste is fermented using a unique blend of bacteria and microbes. The sweet, pickled smell of the bokashi pre-compost can be safely buried in your garden, compost pile or containers without attracting any pests.

6. Suitable for all sizes of gardens, patios and balconies
Bokashi composting is successful on any scale and the process can be scaled up or down to meet your needs. Whether you are producing only a few hundred grams of food waste a day or a few hundred kilograms of food waste a day the process is the same and the results will be identical.

7. No loss of nutrients or water
The bokashi fermentation process is completed inside a closed container; therefore there is no opportunity for the nutrients or water to be lost. For example, there is no chance for nutrients to be leached out by rainwater infiltration and runoff. In addition, none of the carbon or nitrogen is gassed off into the atmosphere from the sealed bokashi compost bin. The sealed bin means there is no evaporation so all of the moisture from your food waste is returned to your soils either through the bokashi tea or through the bokashi pre-compost.

8. It isn’t seasonal
This system is successful throughout the year. The pre-compost takes a little longer to fully breakdown during the colder winter months. However, you’re not likely to be planting in the middle of winter so you can probably happily leave it for a few extra weeks. You can continue the process of collecting, fermenting and burying your food waste 365 days a year.

9. Negligible greenhouse gases emitted
Studies show that traditional composting potentially recycles around half (or less) of the carbon into the soil. Even under optimum conditions, traditional composting emits greenhouse gases. Bokashi composting, on the other hand produces little, or no, greenhouse gases.

“…bokashi fermentation does not produce measurable gas emissions in its conversion of organic waste into a nutrient-rich end product that can be used to support plants and crops.” (Green, 2009) 1

The goodness from your food waste is now getting into your soil.

10. It adds beneficial bacteria and by-products to your soil
The fermentation process doesn’t stop instantly when you add your bokashi-treated food waste to your soil or compost heap. After 2 weeks of fermentation in your bucket, the number of beneficial microbes in your food scraps has increased immensely. Adding the bokashi-treated food waste to your soil will also add all of these beneficial bacteria. These microbes help to break down harmful chemicals and suppress pathogens within your soil or compost pile. You may start to notice the familiar white mould on the surface of your soil after you have buried your bokashi food waste. This is evidence that the beneficial bacteria have survived and are thriving in your soil.

The microbes used in Bokashi Bran® are all naturally derived and occur in soils around the world.

How to compost with bokashi

The bokashi composting process is simple and easy. Follow these four simple steps and you can enjoy creating homemade compost in just 4-6 weeks.

Step 1: Collect food waste
The first step is to add your food waste to your Bokashi Bran® bucket. Fruits, vegetables, cooked food, meat, bones, dairy and baked goods are all fine to add to your bucket.
To be honest, it’s probably easier to just think about what should not go in the bucket. That list is much shorter.

Things to keep out of your bokashi kitchen composter:
*Mouldy or rotten food. These may introduce too much blue/green mould and may turn your bokashi bucket bad. An occasional mouldy grape or apple core is fine but don’t overload your bokashi bin with rotten items. If you are adding small amounts of blue/green mould to your bin remember to add a little extra Bokashi Bran® at the same time.

*Excess liquids including grease and oil. Too much liquid prevents the good bacteria from thriving. Small amounts are acceptable.
We also recommend keeping cut flowers and garden waste out of your bokashi bucket. These will happily break down using the bokashi process but will take up a lot of space in your bucket. Cut flowers and garden waste don’t add as much nutrient value as food waste. We suggest you save space in your bucket for items that are going to add lots of nutrients to your soil and those that would be hard to compost otherwise.
Remember to chop your food waste into small pieces for quicker composting. Larger pieces are OK but may take longer to ferment. Smaller pieces create a larger surface area for the bokashi microbes to get to work on.
The bokashi process is anaerobic and so the less fresh air in the bin, the better. Try not to open the lid more than necessary. We would suggest that you add your food waste in batches. Keep a convenient container on the kitchen counter to collect your food waste. Empty this container into your bokashi kitchen composter once or twice a day.
Once you’ve added your food waste, press it down using a potato masher to expel air.

Step 2: Sprinkle with Bokashi Bran®
Each time you add food waste to your bokashi compost bin you need to sprinkle on some Bokashi Bran®. Bokashi Bran® is a mix of microbes that accelerates the composting/fermenting process. Use 100ml scoop for a 7 cm layer of food waste. Just make sure all the food waste is lightly dusted with bokashi.

You can never add too much Bokashi Bran®. Be more generous if you are putting meat, dairy, bones or cooked food into your kitchen composter.

Repeat this process every day, until your bokashi kitchen composter is full. The average family will take about 2 weeks to fill a bin. Don’t worry if it takes longer than this, it will just give your food waste more time to ferment. If you fill the indoor kitchen composter in less than 2 weeks then we suggest you get an extra bin to continue the cycle of collecting food waste.

Once the bin is full, keep the lid sealed for 2 weeks to complete the pre-compost fermentation process. During this time you can start to fill your second kitchen composter.

Avoid exposing your bokashi compost bin to extreme temperatures and direct sunlight. Room temperature is ideal for the kitchen composter. Cooler temperatures may require more time for fermentation to complete. As the kitchen composter will not smell or attract wildlife, most people keep their bucket in their kitchen.

Use the tap on your bokashi bucket to drain the bokashi tea every other day and use the tea within a couple of hours. Bokashi tea is a fantastic plant food for your house plants and garden. Dilute the bokashi tea with water 1:300 before using, as the bokashi tea is acidic. See below for more details on bokashi tea.

Step 3: Bury or compost the food waste
After your food waste has fermented for at least 2 weeks you are ready to bury your bokashi pre-compost in your garden, compost heap or container.

After 2 weeks you should see white mould on the surface of the food waste and/or smell a sweet and sour pickle-like smell. These are indicators of successful fermentation.

If you see blue /green mould or your bin has a putrid smell then your bin has gone bad. For more details on how to prevent your bin from going bad read through the troubleshooting guide below.

Assuming that you have white mould and/or a sweet-smelling bin, you are ready to bury your pre-compost. You have a few options for your pre-compost. The three most common methods are:
*trench method,
*compost burial
*composting bin

Trench method of burying
Firstly, find an area of your garden where you wish to enhance the soil. Dig a trench approximately a metre long by about a spade deep. Dig deeper if you have dogs. If you don’t have space for a large trench you can bury pre-compost in multiple holes.

Empty your pre-compost into the trench. Cover with soil and mix, making sure there are no large lumps of food waste. Cover with the rest of your soil, so at least 10cm of soil covers your pre-compost.

If you have particularly inquisitive dogs who will disturb freshly dug soil looking for grubs, we would recommend covering the area with the newly buried food waste with netting or chicken-mesh wire to discourage the digging.

Burying in your compost pile
This is a popular method as it requires very little effort and is quick. The Bokashi Bran® microbes will reinvigorate life within the compost pile, and you will see a noticeable improvement in the quality of the compost.

This approach is similar to the trench method but instead of burying directly into your garden you bury the pre-compost into your compost pile. Dig a hole in your compost pile, mix in the food waste and then cover with at least 20cm of compost material.

Composting bin
A composting bin can be made from any large plastic storage box or bin with a well-fitting lid. Put a few generous scoops of regular garden soil into the container. Mix in a bucket of bokashi-treated food waste. Break down any large lumps of food waste. Cover with at least 10cm of garden soil or garden waste. Put the lid back on and leave for couple of weeks (longer in the winter) to complete the process.

You can keep using your composting bin indefinitely; just remove some of the enriched soil to make space for the next bucket of pre-compost. The compost from your composting bin can be added directly to your plants.

Step 4: Plant your garden
After you have buried your pre-compost, simply wait for 2 weeks before growing your favourite veggies and flowers on the nutrient enriched soil. The pre-compost is acidic, therefore make sure to wait at least two weeks before planting, otherwise you may burn the plant’s roots.

Troubleshooting Guide
By following the 4 steps outlined above, most people will enjoy successful results with their bokashi composting every time. But if problems arise, don’t despair! There are some common problems and solutions that you can try.

Bokashi composting is all about creating an optimal environment for the healthy bokashi microbes to thrive. Remember that every climate is different, and not everybody creates the same type of food waste, so there are no hard and fast rules for any composting process. But after a couple of tries, most people will easily find the rhythm that works best within their kitchen.

How do I know if my bokashi compost bin has failed?
If you open your bokashi compost bin and you smell a foul, putrid odour or you see lots of blue/green mould, then something has gone wrong. A successful bokashi bin will smell pickled and/or yeasty and may have white mould visible (no visible white mould does not mean that it has failed).

Most common reasons for bokashi compost bins to fail

*CHOPPING:
Make sure you chop up your food scraps before putting them in the kitchen composter. Large items will compost, but will take longer to ferment than smaller items.

*AIR:
Excess air is bad for the bokashi process. The bokashi bucket should be opened and closed as little as possible, and for as short a time as convenient, while you are loading it and until it is full. Do not leave the lid open unnecessarily. It’s best to collect your food scraps in a bowl on your kitchen counter (with a lid), and just once or twice a day load them into the bokashi bucket. Try not to open the bucket at all during its sealed two week fermentation time.

*POTATO MASHER:
PRESS DOWN with a potato masher as you add food layers, as this will help squeeze air out of the food waste in the bokashi bucket and make space for more to be added.

*AMOUNT OF BOKASHI BRAN®:
You can never add too much bokashi bran® to the kitchen composter. In fact, more is better, especially when dealing with food scraps that rot easily (like meat). At a minimum, at least be sure that you have a dusting of bokashi bran mixed evenly throughout the food waste that are in the bin. As you add the food waste, sprinkle the bokashi, and mix slightly to ensure even coverage.

*TEMPERATURE:
The kitchen composter should be kept away from extreme temperatures. Room temperature is ideal for the microbes to thrive. Keep the bokashi bin inside during cold months, and out of direct sunlight in the warm months. Colder temperatures will not stop the microbes entirely, but it will slow them down.

*TIME INSIDE THE KITCHEN COMPOSTER:
Most food scraps should successfully complete the pre-compost process in two weeks. But some might take longer, especially if they are not chopped well enough. Try leaving the food waste for an extra week in the kitchen composter. Longer fermentation time in the kitchen composter is always beneficial.

*TIME IN THE GROUND:
Once your bokashi food waste has been transferred to your garden, two weeks is usually all it takes for the majority of the items to be decomposed into the soil web. However, if the temperature is cooler, or the food waste are not fully pre-composted, it might need longer. An extra week in the soil should finish it off.

Remember, the bokashi composting system relies on a natural, living process and sometimes problems occur for no particular reason. If your bin goes bad, don’t despair simply dig a trench, pour a kettle of boiling water over it, add some bokashi and cover it up with soil. All will be forgiven.

Bokashi tea
Bokashi tea is a by-product of the bokashi process and is a fabulous liquid plant food, and much more.

What is bokashi tea?
Bokashi tea, juice or leachate is the liquid that can be tapped from your bokashi bucket. It contains a mixture of all the goodness from your bokashi kitchen composter; bokashi microbes, liquids from the food scraps and liquids produced during the fermentation process.

How can I use my bokashi tea?
Nutrient-rich plant food
Bokashi tea is a very nutrient rich plant food that can be used on your indoor plants or garden. This can be added to areas of your garden where it would be difficult to add bokashi pre-compost, such as on your lawn or in heavily planted areas.

Bokashi tea is quite acidic and therefore we recommend a dilution rate of around 1:300 before using. You may wish to test the dilution rate on sensitive plants and you may find that less sensitive plants can tolerate a lower dilution rate. The diluted bokashi tea should be applied to the soil as the foliage will be more sensitive to high acidity levels.

Remember bokashi tea is teeming with the beneficial bacteria. We suggest you use your bokashi tea as soon as possible after draining it from your bokashi kitchen composter so that your plants can benefit from all of the goodness in it. If left unused for more than a few hours, then the tea may start to go bad…. and smell putrid.

Compost enhancer
Bokashi tea has millions of microbes from your bokashi compost bin. These can be incredibly beneficial to your compost pile. The bokashi tea can be poured directly into your compost pile.
The bacteria will help to speed up the composting process and is a great way to add moisture to your compost pile, if needed. Again, be sure to use fresh bokashi tea that you have just drained from your bokashi bucket.

Drain cleaner
If you can’t use your bokashi tea straight away, don’t worry. You can simply poor it down the drain. It is completely natural and will not pollute. In fact, the bokashi bacteria helps to unblock clogged drains and are beneficial to the water treatment works too. The effective microorganisms eliminate bacteria that cause unpleasant odours.

How soon should I get bokashi tea from my indoor kitchen composter?
This will depend on the materials that you are putting in your bokashi compost bin, but you will typically start to get bokashi tea after 2 weeks of fermentation. Don’t worry if it takes longer. Shake the bucket to hear if there is liquid in the bottom of the bucket.

How much bokashi tea should I get?
Again, this will depend on the food waste that you are putting into your bokashi bucket. If you are adding lots of juicy fruit peelings and rinds then you can expect to get more bokashi tea than if you are adding lots of dry items. On average you will likely see a couple of tablespoons every day or two at first, up to around 1-2 cups every day or two once your bokashi compost bin is full.

How does bokashi work: the science
Bokashi composting works by changing the biological and chemical structure of food waste through the fermentation process. During the fermentation process there is little visible change to the food scraps, other than the addition of white mould on the surface. However, the structure of the food waste has been altered such that it will break down in just two weeks when added to your garden. In addition, the pickling (or fermentation) of the food scraps means that they are no longer attractive to wildlife therefore allowing all food scraps to be composted at home without introducing pest problems.

Anaerobic versus aerobic
A traditional compost pile is broken down aerobically by microbes, bugs and fungi. As the process is aerobic, it is important to keep turning the materials regularly and allowing enough oxygen to get to the aerobic microbes. Should the process turn anaerobic (i.e., the pile is starved of oxygen) then it will start to putrefy and smell awful.

The bokashi bacteria, however, have both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. By fermenting food in anaerobic conditions we allow the bokashi microbes to take over and suppress the nasty putrefying bacteria. No putrefying bacteria, no awful smell, swamp-like slime or harmful emissions.

What are bokashi EM (effective microorganisms)
EM (effective microorganisms) is a selected group of microbes that work together beneficially to ferment food waste. The original EM product (EM1) was developed by a Japanese researcher (Teruo Higa) in the 1980’s. By carefully selecting a mix of bacteria, Higa was able to develop a group of beneficial bacteria that are universally applicable and are able to survive and thrive in a wide range of real world conditions. Bokashi Bran® uses only the original EM from Dr Higa in Japan.
Today, there are different varieties of EM1-type products available but Bokashi Bran will only use Dr Higa’s EM. Scientific laboratory testing has proven that Dr Higa’s EM will eliminate the Listeria Monocytogen pathogen.

EM culture will fall into the following three categories:
Lactic acid bacteria
These bacteria convert sugar into lactic acid. This lactic acid production reduces the pH and produces an environment that is unfavourable for pathogens and methane-producing bacteria. Without this group of bacteria there would be no fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria are commonly used in yoghurt and cheese.

Yeast
Yeasts are single-cell fungi. Yeasts help to decompose sugars and create many beneficial by-products such as vitamins, hormones and amino acids. Yeast is typically the fermentation starter.

Phototropic bacteria
Phototropic bacteria are aerobic microbes essential for the carbon / nitrogen cycle in composting. They are able to survive in a wide variety of environments and this adaptability makes them a very useful group within any EM product. Their main benefit is in breaking down hydrogen sulphide gas and ammonia and reducing the odours associated with these gases.

Getting started with a bokashi composting system
Bokashi Bran’s starter kit comes with 2 buckets + 2 bags of 1kg bokashi. If you like what you’ve read then you can find all of the supplies you need to start your own bokashi compost system in our online shop (www.bokashibran.co.za/shop)